Forensic Blood Analysis



Investigation 1: History of Blood Groups and Forensics 

Investigation 1 takes you back in history to the scientists responsible for grouping blood types and using that information in Forensic Science.  
Part A.  Read about the Nobel Prize winner Karl Landsteiner and write your answers to the questions on the Task worksheet provided below as a word document or a printed version provided by your teacher .  
     a.  What type of Nobel Prize did he win?
     b.  In what year is Landsteiner credited for the discovery of blood groups?
     c.  Between 1901 and 1903, what did Landsteiner point out regarding the transfusion of 
          human blood to other humans?
     d.  In your opinion, why is the discovery of the ABO blood groups so important to forensic    
Part B.  Forensic scientists collect blood at crime scenes everyday.  How do you think they know if the blood came from a human or an animal?  Read about the precipitin test and record your answers on the Task worksheet.  
     a.  Who introduced the first fluid precipitin test and in what year?
     b.  According to Paul Uhlenhuth, what does a precipitin look like?
Part C.  With a partner, share your information for Part A, section d.  Did your partner have a different opinion than you?  If so, note this on the worksheet under Part C.

Discoveries by these scientists have allowed investigators to collect blood at a crime scene, determine if it is human blood, and figure out the blood type.  In your next investigation, you will explore how blood works and its components.  

Investigation 2:  Blood cells and Antibody/Antigen Relationships
In this investigation you will explore blood cells and the differences between blood groups.  
1).  Proceed to this NobelPrize website. Read "The Discovery of Blood Groups" to review the history from the first day of this webquest. Then complete the Investigation 2 section of the Task worksheet.  
2).  Section: What is Blood Made of?  Draw a blood cell and label the parts shown.  Next to each labeled part, write its function.
3).  Section: What are the different blood groups?  The main differences between blood groups are due to what?  Where are antigens found?  Where are antibodies found?
4). Section:  ABO blood grouping system.  Complete the table showing each blood group, the antigen it has, and the antibody found in the plasma.  
5). Click on the animation Blood Groups, Blood Typing, and Blood Donation to observe the reactions between blood types.  Record the final results shown on slide 7 of the animation by completing the table on the Task worksheet.  

Investigation 3:  Blood Types and Compatibility
The ABO blood types and Rh factors are compatible in many ways.  Knowing how they interact with each other can mean life or death when a blood transfusion is necessary.  Return to the Nobelprize website to learn how compatible the blood groups are. Complete the Task worksheet for this investigation.
1).  Watch the agglutination animation under the section:  Blood Typing - how do you find out to which blood group someone belongs?  When a person with type A blood is given type B blood, agglutination occurs.  What does this indicate?
2).  Section:  What happens when blood clots or agglutinates?  Agglutination causes harm to the body.  List two effects of agglutination.  
3).  Section:  Blood transfusions- who can receive blood from whom?  Which blood type is considered the "universal donor" and why?  Which blood type is considered the "universal recipient" and why?

You have finished the investigations.  Please proceed to the conclusion page for your final assignment.  

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