Citation Styles


Citations are found directly after your use of other authors quotes or ideas within your paper.  They are also included in your papers Works Cited page or Bibliography (the complete, alphabetical listing of all of the sources used in your research and found at the end of your paper).  By using the Works Cited page, readers should be able to find all of the sources you have used for your paper, as well as the information that they need to find those original sources on their own.

There are several different ways to cite your sources, and the citation method that you use will depend upon the course and professor or your workplaces preference.  Below is a list of some of the more frequently used citation styles.

  • Modern Language Association (MLA): Used primarily for the humanities such as English and foreign languages.
  • Chicago or Turabian: The preferred style for history and art history.
  • American Psychological Association (APA): This citation style is used by the social sciences such as anthropology, economics, education, management, political science, and psychology.
  • American Medical Association (AMA) or Vancouver: Used for the disciplines of medicine, health, and biological sciences.
For a more detailed explanation of citations, you can visit the Kent State Librarys Style Manuals and Writing Guides.  Under Citation Generators, you will find links to websites that automatically create citations for you.  Once you enter the website, there will be a list of citation styles; select the style you want to use for your paper.  Then, either plug in the source information or the ISBN number (the 10-digit number located on the back of a book). 

Task 3: Creating Bibliographical References Using MLA, Turabian, APA and AMA Citation Styles

Print out the handout, Creating Bibliographical References (found at bottom of webpage) for this task.  You will create four references using each of the citation styles listed above.

Once the references are completed, be sure to check your work using one of the Citation Generators from above.  Exchange your handout with a peer and compare entries.  Do they match?  Be aware of every detail for accuracy.

1.  MLA Style Reference
You are working on an English assignment about John Steinbeck.  Create a bibliographical reference for this resource, John Steinbeck: a biography by Jay Parini. 
Use MLA Reference Guide to help you. 

2.  Turabian Style Reference  
You are writing a paper about the American Civil War for your US History course.  Create a bibliographical reference for this resource,
Utah and the American Civil War: the Written Record edited by Kenneth L. Alford.  Use Turabian: Bibliography Books to help you.

3.  APA Style Reference
For one of your secondary education courses your professor wants your do some research on SMET in America. You find the resource, The state of science, math, engineering, and technology (SMET) education in America, parts I-IV, including the results of the Third International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) : hearings before the Committee on Science, U.S. House of Representatives, One Hundred Fifth Congress, first session, July 23, September 24, October 8 and 29, 1997 and need to add it to your bibliography.  Use APA Reference Guide to help you.

4.  AMA Style Reference
You are studying the human spinal cord in Biology 101.  One of your resources for a paper is from this resource, Anatomy of the Spinal Cord by Nachum Dafny.  Use AMA Style Guide to help you.


W.3.7. Recall relevant information from experiences or gather relevant information from print and digital sources; summarize or paraphrase information in notes and finished work, and provide a list of sources. (W.5.8)

W.4.7. Gather relevant information from multiple print and digital sources, using search terms effectively; assess the credibility and accuracy of each source; and quote or paraphrase the data and conclusions of others while avoiding plagiarism and following a standard format for citation. (W/WHST.6-8.8)

W.5.4. Gather relevant information from multiple authoritative print and digital sources, using advanced searches effectively; assess the usefulness of each source in answering the research question; integrate information into the text selectively to maintain the flow of ideas, avoiding plagiarism and following a standard format for citation. (W/WHST.9-10.8)

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