- Presence of dangerous unnatural ingredeints causing imbalance in the ecosystems and health hazards to human beings and animals is called pollution.
- Pollution is mainly found in air, water, soil, food and sound.
- Major human activities like industries, agriculture, health care, transport, dwelling and energy generation are the causes of pollution.
- Many industries like textile, paper, steel, sugar, petroleum, food, chemical and cement industries cause air pollution, water pollution and soil pollution.
- Industrial pollutants include gases like methane, cyanides, carbon tetrachloride, carbon disulphides, carbon monoxide, hydrogen disulphides, hydrochloric acids, ammonia, sulphur dioxide as well as multiples of liquid / solid compounds.
- Modern agriculture - encouraging the large scale of fertilizers and pesticides - is primary cause of drinking water pollution.
- Transport has been the main reason for air pollution in most cities. Vehicular trffic releasing carbon monoxide, sulphur dioxide, nitrogen dioxide has caused large scale air pollution in cities.
- Pollution of air is the major cause human health problems such as respiratory problems, lung / throat, cancer etc. Pollution of water is also the main cause of health problems like gastero - enteritis formation of ulcers, tumors.
- Health problems due to pollution range form simple vomiting and skin irritations to intestinal cancer, brain tumors, from simple fever to fatal hepatitis, from throat irritation to deadly heart diseases.
- Foods that we eat are polluted because of use of pesticides, use of polluted water or microbial activities. Many persistent pesticides enter food chains and accumulate in bodies at a larger concentrations.
- Soil pollution by various solids and liquids has created imbalances in soil ecosystems besides creating number of ecological hazards in cities and villages.
- Control of pollution has been a formidable challenge to human civilization. As the pollution grows with the civilization and growing population, the control of pollution is more challenging.
- Several measures have been adopted, suggested imposed in industries, in agriculture and urban dwellings to control the pollution.
However fast growing population and high capital requirement are the major problems being faced to implement the scientific methods of pollution control.